Application of gluten in food industry
Gluten has a protein mass fraction of 70%-80%, consists of a variety of amino acids, and has a high content of minerals such as calcium, phosphorus and iron, making it a nutritious and inexpensive source of vegetable protein. When gluten absorbs water, it forms wet gluten with network structure, which has excellent viscoelasticity, extensibility, thermal coagulation, emulsification and film forming, and can be used as a natural ingredient or additive in various kinds of food, such as bread, noodles, ancient meat, vegetarian sausage, vegetarian chicken, meat products, etc.
Initially, gluten was mainly used in baked goods. However, with the improvement of the understanding of its structure and functional properties, the application of gluten powder is becoming more and more extensive. In summary, it is mainly concentrated in the following areas.
1,Flour fortification and application in baked goods
The most basic use of gluten is to adjust the protein content of flour. Many local flour manufacturers add gluten to low gluten flour to meet the requirements of bread flour without having to mix expensive, imported high gluten flour. This method has been commonly used in Europe. Similarly, bakery manufacturers use gluten to fortify general grades of flour without having to stockpile large amounts of high-gluten flour.
The viscoelasticity of gluten improves dough strength, mixability and handling properties; its film-forming foaming ability preserves air to control swelling and improve volume, uniformity and texture; its heat-setting properties provide the necessary structural strength and chewing characteristics; and its water-absorbing ability improves baked product yield, softness and shelf life. It is estimated that approximately 70% of gluten is used in the production of bread, sweet confections and a wide variety of fermented products. The amount of gluten used varies depending on the specific use, texture and shelf life requirements of the baked goods. For example, adding about 1% gluten to wheat flour can reduce the breakage rate of finished pretzels, but adding too much gluten may cause the pretzels to taste too hard. Using about 2% gluten in pre-cut burger and hot dog buns improves their strength and gives the buns the desired crunchy character.
2,Application in noodle processing
In the production of hanging noodles, when 1%-2% gluten is added, the effect of improved handling, increased tenderness, and improved touch is received because the noodles are well formed and the softness is increased. When boiling noodles, it can reduce the noodle ingredients to the soup leaching, and improve the rate of boiling noodles, prevent the noodles from being too soft or broken, and increase the effect of noodle extension.
3,Application in meat, fish and poultry products
Gluten is able to combine fat and water while increasing protein content, which makes gluten widely used in meat, fish and poultry products as well. Gluten improves the utilization of beef, pork and lamb through a process of histological reconstitution, and gluten can be shaved into more flavorful steak-type products to convert less desirable fresh meat. Gluten has good shaving properties for meat processing, such as in poultry rolls, “whole” canned hams and other non-specific breaded products, where it enhances the shaving characteristics and reduces losses during cooking.
In meat products, gluten protein presents many advantages as a binder, filler or bulking agent. The use of 1%-5% gluten as a binder in meat products gives many advantages such as increased viscoelasticity, color stability, hardness, juiciness and water retention, reduced oil retention and processing losses. Its coagulation properties help to improve rheological properties, enhance flaking ability and maintain sensory characteristics.
The adhesive, film-forming and heat-setting properties of wheat gluten help bind meat and fruits and vegetables together in steaks, and gluten can also be sprinkled onto meat slices. It can also be used in canned hamburgers and sliced bread to reduce processing and steaming losses. The amount of gluten added is 2% to 3.5% of its mass. In addition, gluten is also used in meat patties and sometimes as a binding agent for sausages and some meat products. When gluten is hydrated, its structure is stretched out and can be pulled into silk, thread or film, and this feature can be used to make various kinds of artificial meat. For example, gluten can be used to produce crab meat analogues and even artificial caviar, and gluten dissolved in alcohol can be used to prepare peelable edible films, such as enteric coating films.
Post time: Sep-29-2022